Currently, mercury lamps are most commonly used in UVC water disinfection. These lamps have a number of limitations including electrical inefficiency due to significant heat generation and environmental concerns such as high ozone emissions.
UVC LEDs are robust, compact and offer more precise control of output. Unlike the mercury based alternative they have lower operational costs as they are more energy efficient. Moreover, they are able to provide UVC at specific wavelengths, increasing their utility for specific water treatments. Due to their compactness, multiple LED wavelengths can be combined into a single lamp to induce multiple inactivation mechanisms.